Posts Tagged ‘Guria’

About Photi

Sunday, February 27th, 2011
Photi

Photi

Geography:

 

Photi is located in the regions of Samegrelo and North Svaneti, on the Colchis lowland, at the estuary of river Rioni. The city’s area is 69 kmВІ and the population is 47149 people.

Photi-Georgia

Photi-Georgia

History:

 

Poti, successor of Phasis is the ancient city, which was established in VII century B.C. Development of farming, handicraft, textile, ceramics and other fields, made the ancient city of Colchis (Kolkheti), Phasis economic and trade center. Phasis was also known for its culture. There was a rhetorical school in Phasis – Phasis Academy. According to ancient Greek historian’s, Straboni’s words there was more than 60 tomes in Phasis.

The development of capitalism, made Poti the main transporting port on the Black Sea coast. In 1858 Poti was announced as the port city. In 1871 the first Caucasian railway line was opened : Poti – Shorapani. Establishing Poti – Tbilisi railway line, increased the importance of the city. Poti still remains the sea gate for Georgia.

By the 20th century, in 50-60-ies the town has got bigger and it has changed its whole appearance. new housing areas, medical and cultural-educational institutions, sports-tourist bases were built. Poti became the scientific center of Colchis. There are more than 20 educational institutions, libraries, high education institutions, folk and choreography studio, G. Chitaia Culture and History museum, and many other institutions in Poti. The city is the center of Poti Diocese. There are oil recycling, shipbuilding and food industry enterprises in Poti.

Culture:

Saint Mary’s Cathedral

Saint Mary’s Cathedral

 

Saint Mary’s Cathedral :

Saint Mary’s Cathedral is located in the historic center of Photi. In particular : В in today’s Central Park. This location of the building was chosen because of  the rays perceived from the street.
Photi is a city, which was built according to a plan. 12 squares were joining  the central street (twelve Apostles sign) and the ray sign was created. The  most important event in the history of Photi was the building of Guria–  Samegrelo eparchy’s cathedral in 1906-1907 years, In which’s construction,  great contribution belongs to Niko Nikoladze.
The project was created by A.Zelenko. The project is the reduced analog of Constantinople’s Hagia Sofia. Later, after that, R. Marpeld made some corrections in project, the project was approved. The church was entertained to hold 2000 prayers. The construction of the church was tasked to “Black Sea Building Society”. The construction began in 6 July, 1906 and finished in September, 1907. It lasted for 1 year and 3 months. It was opened on 14 September “Jvartamagleba” holiday. The church’s foundation was blessed, by Guria-Samegrelo bishop, Giorgi.
On 22 May, 1907 the cross was erected on the dome of the church. Soviet government, turned the cathedral into theatre. In 2005, by the prayer-blessing of Catholicos-Patriarch of Georgia, the cathedral returned to the Photi patriarchate ownage.

Niko Nikoladze Tower

Niko Nikoladze Tower

 

Niko Nikoladze Tower:

Niko Nikoladze Tower is the oldest and the most important building in Photi, because of it’s historical and architectural dignities. In the West of city’s  central square, at the Saint Mary’s Cathedral’s entrance, 5 stages tower stands,  which is known as Niko Nikoladze Tower, because it’s reconstruction is Вconnected with Niko Nikoladze. The head of Photi,Niko Nikoladze, during his  work years(1894-1912) lived in this tower.
In 1578 the Turks seized the town of Photi and built the castle-fortress on the  left bank of river Rioni,on that indicates the remaining fortress fence on the  both sides of castle. Almost for two and a half century, Turks dominated Photi.

In 1828 Photi finally liberated from Turks. In 1870 the region was inspected by Russian Tsar Alexsander II. For emperor’s meeting, people changed the appearance of Photi fortress. External view and the mosque was destroyed, which was located inside the fortress.

In 1896, Niko Nikoladze, added two floors to the fortress. On the fifth floor, mechanical clock was located, which Niko Nikoladze brought from Paris.

St. Nicholas Church

St. Nicholas Church

 

St. Nicholas Church:

St. Nicholas church is located on Guria street, on the territory of old  cemetery. People often call St. Nicholas church – cemetery or “Nakhuturi”  church. There is a document that says that, the cemetery on which St. В Nicholas’s church was built, was created with city, and the church was built  afterwards. At first, the church was made of wood in 1892, by the leadership  of priest Giorgi Kvirkvelia. According to the 1904 year newspaper –  ”Chernomorski Vestnik”, because of climatic conditions, St. Nicholas’s church В needed repair. Wooden walls were changed with bricks, ceiling and floor was  renewed, the roof was roofed with tin-plate.
In 1990, the last restoration-reconstruction works were made.

Photi lighthouse

Photi lighthouse

 

Photi lighthouse:

Photi lighthouse is located at the estuary of river Rioni and the Black Sea. In В the historic district of the city, in the second half of XIX century, with the  Photi seaport construction development, the lighthouse creation was  required, which was the guarantee to the boats safe navigation in the port. In  1860, Photi’s government decided to place a lighthouse in Photi. In 1864,  English firm – “Ekhton Amos and children”-s engineer-mechanics created the  lighthouse turret, which was assembled with cast-iron sheets.

Colchis culture museum

Colchis culture museum

 

Colchis culture museum:

Colchis culture museum is located on the main street of central square. In particular, on the May 26 street. Today’s Photi’s history museum, which was  built in Niko Nikoladze period, and was the house of a certain merchant (Omer  Avgeninos), which was designed in 1907 by architect Edmund Frick. The  building still has not lost it’s individual appearance, and is the one of the most  significant buildings in Photi.



Republic of Georgia

Sunday, February 27th, 2011
Georgia Map

Georgia Map

Georgia

Georgia is a Republic, which is mainly populated by ethnic Georgians. In X century, Georgia was an ethnic-cultural concept and meant “Qarti” tomme’s and Georgian cultural auspices of all the South Caucasian and some nongeorgian tomme’s cultural unity, and later – their ethnic-cultural-religios-social-economic and political unity, which’s final form – united state, established in XI century. In XII-XIV centuries, Georgia was called the entire Christian and partly Muslim Caucasus. In XIV century, after collapse of country into kingdom-principalities, the term “Georgia” lost it’s meaning. For foreigners it became, etchic-geographical concept ( Gruzia, Vrastan, Gurjistan, etc.).

Georgia Nature

Georgia Nature

Location, nature, climate

Georgia is a country situated in south-east Europe, which borders with Black Sea from the West, Azerbaijan, from the East, Russia, from the North, Turkey and Armenia from the south. Great Caucasus cringe separates Russia from Georgia, the South border goes through the Small Caucasus’s highlands and volcanic slopes. 85 % of country’s territory is mountainous. The height of the highest peaks of Caucasus exceeds 5000 meters.

Diversity of physical-geographical and climatic conditions and multitude of natural waters, also the plants brought from different places of Earth, causes the wealthiness and uniqueness of it’s flora. In Georgia we can found Black Sea’s sandy coasts, everlasting snow covered peaks, humid subtropics and semi-deserts, unique sphagnum swamps and valley’s dressed with dense forests, also almost untouchable areas of wildlife. Due to such variety of nature in Georgia, one can go skiing in the mountains in summer and after that swim the sea.

Georgia has a subtropical climate, summer temperature is approximately 30-35 degrees, in winter from -20 up to +15 degrees.

Population

Population

Population

The country territory’s total area is 69500 KM2. Georgia includes several historic-geographic regions : Kartli, Kakheti, Pshavi, Khevsureti,Mtiuleti, Gudamaqari, Tusheti (Eastern Georgia), Imereti,Guria, Adjara, Samegrelo, Racha, Lechkhumi, Svaneti (Western Georgia), part of historic Samtskhe-Javakheti and Meskhet(South Georgia).Total population approximately is 5 399 000 people, of which 71 % are ethnic Georgians, 8% are Armenians, 5% are Russians, 3% are Ossetians, 6% are Azeri, 1% – Ukrainians, 0,2% – Greeks and 2% – Jews

Metekhi Tbilisi

Metekhi Tbilisi

Historical outlines

Georgia is one of the most ancient countries in the world, with 3 millenium history. The first Georgian states, Diaokhi(in the South-West of Georgia) and Kolkha(on the Black Sea South-East coast) existed yet still in XII-VIII centuries BC. In VI-IV centuries BC, kingdoms of Egrisi and Kartli were established on the territory of Georgia. The kingdom of Kartli particularly strengthened in IV-III centuries BC, during the reign of Parnavaz. At this time, Kartli’s capital was Mtskheta, and the main deity was – Armaz.

Vth century. Vakhtang Gorgasali’s reign period is connected with creation of Tbilisi and building churches on the whole territory of the country.

VII-IX centuries. Arabs dominated in Georgia. During the battle with Arabs, the united feudal Georgian monarchy developed with Bagrat III leadership.

XI-XII centuries. During David Aghmashenebeli and Tamar’s reign, the country’s military success and brilliant achievements in the economy and in culture made Georgia the strongest country. During Tamar’s reign, death penalty was abolished in Georgia. In this period, Rustaveli wrote his masterpiece : “Vepkhistkaosani”

From XIII century, Mongols long reign begins with devastating invasions of Tamerlan. XV century. Georgia disbanded into kingdom-principalities. Turkish- Ottoman powerful kingdom became the Western neighbour of Georgia, which eventually plucked Georgia from Western Europe. In South-East several Turkish kingdoms established, and Russia moored Georgia from the North. XVI-XVIII centuries. Georgian kingdoms principalities devotedly fought for independence. Iran – Turkish endless wars were destroying the country. At the end of XVIII century, Erekle II tried to restore the unity of the country, but he was able to do it only in Kakheti and in Kartli temporary.

By the treatise of Georgievsk in 1783, Eastern Georgia went into Russia’s protection, In 1801, Russia abolished Kartli-Kakheti kingdom and joined it to it’s empire. Soon in the Western Georgia and in whole Caucasus, Russian colonial regime established.

After the Russian Revolution in 1917, Georgia became temporary independent, but soon Bolsheviks conquered it. Only after Soviet Union collapse, Georgia reached complete independence.

After collapse of Soviet Union and it’s putsch, Georgia regained its independence(it was officialy announced on May 26, 1991), and in 1995 Georgia adopted a new constitution and became presidential republic.

Traditions and customs

Georgian traditions and customs are unique. The regale of guest is duty of all members of family, especially for the table head – Tamada.

Some Georgian traditions were gradually forgotten.

 

Religion

During non-christianity in Georgia, people worshiped national deities. From first century A.B, christianity spreads in Georgia. In 337, during king Mirian reign, with the liturgy of St. Nino the Kabadokian, christianity is declared as the state religion. In V century, Georgian Orthodox Church autocephalous was declared.

The most part of Georgians are Orthodox Christians, there are also Catholics – mostly in South Georgia and Islamic confessors – mostly in Adjara. Thus, one can see synagogues and a mosque near Georgian Orthodox churches.

Culture

Georgia is located on the two biggest cultures crossroad – Eastern and Western. That’s why, Georgian culture is a kind of mixture of Eastern and Western cultures and traditions. It’s evidents are ancient archeological monuments found in archeological excavations. Ancient period left palaces, fortresses – and the remains of ancient cities(Uplistsikhe, Armazi, Urbnisi, Vani, etc.). Also excellent examples of metalwork, ceramics production, mosaic art and other branches of art.

The main styles of Georgian churches are basilica and central dome. Ancient basilicas are dated for IV-VI centuries, the style of central dome dominated in VI century and reached the peak of development in XI-XII centuries.