Archive for February, 2011

About Bakuriani

Sunday, February 27th, 2011
Bakuriani

Bakuriani

Geography:

Bakuriani is Georgia’s, Borjomi region’s popular skiing zone. It’s located on 1700 meters altitude on the Trialeti slope’s left side. Bakuriani is surrounded with pine forests(mainly conifers). The skiing area is in 30 km away from Borjomi, on so-called Bakuriani lowland. The city was created on the lava, which dismounted from Mukheri volcano. The highest skiing mountain, Kokhtagora is located on the 2200 meters from the sea level. Bakuriani climate is transitional from continental to mild.

Winter in Bakuriani is cold and snowy, summer is long and warm.The average annual air temperature is 4-3 В° C. In January the average air temperature is 7-3 В° C, and in August it is approximately 15 В° C. Annual precipitation reaches 734 mm. Snow depth from December to March is 64 sm. Georgia Sciences Academy’s famous Botanical garden is located in Bakuriani.

Bakuriani-Georgia

Bakuriani-Georgia

History:

Beautiful nature, excellent climate conditions, with moderate snow cover, fantastic forest surrounding the village, 240 local population – this is a short description of the Bakuriani in 19th century. There are lot of villages in Georgia like this, but certain conditions made this ordinary village the best resort in Georgia.

We will try to name the main circumstances of this transformation :

In XIX century, the Borjomi mineral water, because of its unique medicinal properties, Borjomi valley deserved a great interest. In 1871 Russian Tsar Alexander II granted his brother Mikhail Romanov the Borjomi valley. significant shift happened in the development of valley, Investments were attracted, mineral water bottling plant,resting houses and railways built during the Romanov rule (1898 – 1901). Also Borjomi – Bakuriani narrow-gauge railway was opened during the stewarship of Mikhail Romanov.

Also because of “Guguli”(railway train), Bakuriani began a new life.

The existence of the railway in Bakuriani in 1902-1910, made the Botanical Garden construction on Kokhtagora slope much easier. The building of Botanical garden and its hospitable leader Kozlovski became contributors for beginner skiers.

All those important reasons or conditions would be nothing, without the main factor – human restless dreaming, passion and labour and only after this, the legend was revived and the reality was created. Today its name is – Bakuriani.

Men dreamer case, fortunately turned out to be quite in Georgia.

For that time, skiing boom was in Europe and because of that, Giorgi Nikoladze with his friends started dreaming about the popularization of skiing in Georgia. He was the first, who brought foreign skiers in Bakuriani.

in 1934, PTES(proletarian tourist excursions and society) leased children sanatorium building and founded ski and winter school there.

Remarkable climatic conditions for fox breeding, led to creation of hunting industry in 1932. In the beginning the economy had only 36 pairs of foxes, whose number by 1952 reached 2600. Farm staff, with G. Giorgidze guidance achieved great success in foxes breed improvement. They created and /breeded/ white fox variety and called it “Georgian white fox”. Specialists concluded that scientists failed to create and breed white fox in Western Europe and the US.

1935 year is birth year for Bakuriani as a ski center. In the beginning of January it was already overcrowded. Arrived the TransCaucasian industrial institute(later the Polytechnic institute, and today – the Technical University) students, who were united in the institute skiing section. By institute leader, Bojgua support, students training assemblies in Bakuriani became a tradition. During this period, Tbilisi Medical Institute and State University representatives were sent in Bakuriani.

On 6 January 1935, Ski school of Physical Culture was solemnly opened in Bakuriani. The head of this school was Gogi Bakradze. At the same year, South Caucasian team was formed : Makhashvili, Geladze, Mikaberidze, Kosmachevski, Furceladze, Gvalia, Molovichko,Boiko,Smirnov, Selezniova. Russian skiers were charmed of Bakuriani climate and diversity. They called Bakuriani – “Soviet Skiing Sport Capital”. At the same time in the press Bakuriani was called “Soviet Davos” as well.

In 1950, 45 meters high springboard was built, and then 75 meters high, which attracted more skiing fans from all Europe.

In 1954, In Bakuriani, the first towline was built in Soviet Union. From today’s view it is hard to believe but, until this year, the skiers had to climb the Kokhtagora’s top at the foot.

In 1960, Bakuriani electrification was completed.

In the beginning of 90-ies, Bakuriani is empty, because of the country’s ethnoconflicts and civil wars, Bakuriani dream is destroyed. Bakuriani is in a crisis.

But fortunately, Bakuriani, as the idea, is impossible to disappear. Dreamers continued to believe in this dream and they helped Bakuriani to continue living.

Today Bakuriani arises again : new hotels are built, new ropeways, skiing tracks, new, miracle projects are created. It’s impossible to stop this upgrades. We just have to wish good luck to those people, who do not economy their powers for building and upgrading Bakuriani.

About Photi

Sunday, February 27th, 2011
Photi

Photi

Geography:

 

Photi is located in the regions of Samegrelo and North Svaneti, on the Colchis lowland, at the estuary of river Rioni. The city’s area is 69 kmВІ and the population is 47149 people.

Photi-Georgia

Photi-Georgia

History:

 

Poti, successor of Phasis is the ancient city, which was established in VII century B.C. Development of farming, handicraft, textile, ceramics and other fields, made the ancient city of Colchis (Kolkheti), Phasis economic and trade center. Phasis was also known for its culture. There was a rhetorical school in Phasis – Phasis Academy. According to ancient Greek historian’s, Straboni’s words there was more than 60 tomes in Phasis.

The development of capitalism, made Poti the main transporting port on the Black Sea coast. In 1858 Poti was announced as the port city. In 1871 the first Caucasian railway line was opened : Poti – Shorapani. Establishing Poti – Tbilisi railway line, increased the importance of the city. Poti still remains the sea gate for Georgia.

By the 20th century, in 50-60-ies the town has got bigger and it has changed its whole appearance. new housing areas, medical and cultural-educational institutions, sports-tourist bases were built. Poti became the scientific center of Colchis. There are more than 20 educational institutions, libraries, high education institutions, folk and choreography studio, G. Chitaia Culture and History museum, and many other institutions in Poti. The city is the center of Poti Diocese. There are oil recycling, shipbuilding and food industry enterprises in Poti.

Culture:

Saint Mary’s Cathedral

Saint Mary’s Cathedral

 

Saint Mary’s Cathedral :

Saint Mary’s Cathedral is located in the historic center of Photi. In particular : В in today’s Central Park. This location of the building was chosen because of  the rays perceived from the street.
Photi is a city, which was built according to a plan. 12 squares were joining  the central street (twelve Apostles sign) and the ray sign was created. The  most important event in the history of Photi was the building of Guria–  Samegrelo eparchy’s cathedral in 1906-1907 years, In which’s construction,  great contribution belongs to Niko Nikoladze.
The project was created by A.Zelenko. The project is the reduced analog of Constantinople’s Hagia Sofia. Later, after that, R. Marpeld made some corrections in project, the project was approved. The church was entertained to hold 2000 prayers. The construction of the church was tasked to “Black Sea Building Society”. The construction began in 6 July, 1906 and finished in September, 1907. It lasted for 1 year and 3 months. It was opened on 14 September “Jvartamagleba” holiday. The church’s foundation was blessed, by Guria-Samegrelo bishop, Giorgi.
On 22 May, 1907 the cross was erected on the dome of the church. Soviet government, turned the cathedral into theatre. In 2005, by the prayer-blessing of Catholicos-Patriarch of Georgia, the cathedral returned to the Photi patriarchate ownage.

Niko Nikoladze Tower

Niko Nikoladze Tower

 

Niko Nikoladze Tower:

Niko Nikoladze Tower is the oldest and the most important building in Photi, because of it’s historical and architectural dignities. In the West of city’s  central square, at the Saint Mary’s Cathedral’s entrance, 5 stages tower stands,  which is known as Niko Nikoladze Tower, because it’s reconstruction is Вconnected with Niko Nikoladze. The head of Photi,Niko Nikoladze, during his  work years(1894-1912) lived in this tower.
In 1578 the Turks seized the town of Photi and built the castle-fortress on the  left bank of river Rioni,on that indicates the remaining fortress fence on the  both sides of castle. Almost for two and a half century, Turks dominated Photi.

In 1828 Photi finally liberated from Turks. In 1870 the region was inspected by Russian Tsar Alexsander II. For emperor’s meeting, people changed the appearance of Photi fortress. External view and the mosque was destroyed, which was located inside the fortress.

In 1896, Niko Nikoladze, added two floors to the fortress. On the fifth floor, mechanical clock was located, which Niko Nikoladze brought from Paris.

St. Nicholas Church

St. Nicholas Church

 

St. Nicholas Church:

St. Nicholas church is located on Guria street, on the territory of old  cemetery. People often call St. Nicholas church – cemetery or “Nakhuturi”  church. There is a document that says that, the cemetery on which St. В Nicholas’s church was built, was created with city, and the church was built  afterwards. At first, the church was made of wood in 1892, by the leadership  of priest Giorgi Kvirkvelia. According to the 1904 year newspaper –  ”Chernomorski Vestnik”, because of climatic conditions, St. Nicholas’s church В needed repair. Wooden walls were changed with bricks, ceiling and floor was  renewed, the roof was roofed with tin-plate.
In 1990, the last restoration-reconstruction works were made.

Photi lighthouse

Photi lighthouse

 

Photi lighthouse:

Photi lighthouse is located at the estuary of river Rioni and the Black Sea. In В the historic district of the city, in the second half of XIX century, with the  Photi seaport construction development, the lighthouse creation was  required, which was the guarantee to the boats safe navigation in the port. In  1860, Photi’s government decided to place a lighthouse in Photi. In 1864,  English firm – “Ekhton Amos and children”-s engineer-mechanics created the  lighthouse turret, which was assembled with cast-iron sheets.

Colchis culture museum

Colchis culture museum

 

Colchis culture museum:

Colchis culture museum is located on the main street of central square. In particular, on the May 26 street. Today’s Photi’s history museum, which was  built in Niko Nikoladze period, and was the house of a certain merchant (Omer  Avgeninos), which was designed in 1907 by architect Edmund Frick. The  building still has not lost it’s individual appearance, and is the one of the most  significant buildings in Photi.



About Batumi

Sunday, February 27th, 2011
Batumi

Batumi

Geography:
City of Batumi is located on the Black Sea coast, on 2-3 meters height from the sea level. It has the shape of half moon. Batumi is constructed on the north sector of Kakhaberi lowlands.
Batumi city area is 19 kmВІ. Coastal Adjara includes plain-lowlands and is distinguished by subtropical climate characteristic of high thermal regime(average annual temperature 14,5 В° C. the average temperature of the coldest month – January is +6 В° C). Average annual precipitation is 2 200 mm and air wetness is 80%. Batumi is the land and sea gate of Georgia, with its deep seaport, railway and industry enterprises. Batumi population is 124 000 people.

Batumi-Adjara

Batumi-Adjara

History:
Batumi’s history’s painful facts are 1924 year events. When Georgian people launched rebellion forces against Russian invaders in different regions of Georgia. In Batumi, national-liberal party members were killed without any investigation. Anti-Soviet party members were executed in 31 August, 1924. Among them was the active participant of struggle for Batumi’s liberation from Ottomans, general-major – George Purtseladze,which held the position of Batumi defense company’s Chief of staff.

 

During the Soviet period, the region of Adjara got the autonomy status for “religious grounds”, though this was the Soviet Union plan. The era of socialism was not particular for Batumi. Like Soviet people, Batumi and his community also experienced the coldness of 37-38 years. Batumi population actively participated in Second World War’s(1941-1945) various fronts. From 12 258 soldiers recruited from Batumi, 4 728 had not returned. In 60-80-ies, the city life was the typical example of Soviet life and it’s characteristic values.

In 1989-1991 years, after beginning of Georgian national-liberation movement and the restoration of independence in May 26, 1991, clan rule of Aslan Abashidze established in Adjara. In May 2004, Abashidze’s separatist regime’s precipitation was logical continue to Georgia’s Rose revolution in 2003.

Batumi-Travel

Batumi-Travel

Nature:
Batumi nature is subtropical. Warm, dry winters and warm summer. The average annual temperature is 14,5 В° C, in January – 7,1 В° C, in August – 23,2 В° C. Precipitation – 2560 mm per year. Wetness – 81%. There are frequent heavy storms. Snow rarely falls, and soon melts. The sea water temperature near coast is approximately – 16,7 В° C. In the coast line, sea brizes are well expressed, that’s why heat is felt less.

 

On the territory of Batumi, there is a natural lake(0,06 kmВІ), which now is a part of Batumpark. In the city and its surroundings, various subtropical plants are spread. Artificially planted parks, tea plantations and citrus plants are prevailing. On the hills, there are Colchis preserved natural forests and shrubberies.

History of Tbilisi

Sunday, February 27th, 2011

 

Tbilisi

Tbilisi

History of Tbilisi

In Mtskheta, King Vakhtang let his hawk loose one day and it chased after a pheasant. The King waited. He could not see the hawk, nor the pheasant. He Followed the path that the hawk had, taken down the valley. At the bottom of the valley flowed steaming waters, the color of sulfur. The pheasant had drowned and the hawk sat above. Enchanted with the source of the hot waters, the King founded Tbilisi in the valley’ (Tbili’ means warm in Georgian).

A blend of cultures, a smell of spices on the air, different nations meeting on street corners, different faiths sharing the same courtyards, …this is Tbilisi, the city that has been dominated by traders, warriors, tyrants and dictators in turn. Take a walk around the old town, and breathe in the living past. Visit the bustling markets, the ancient sulfur baths, the dazzling treasury, and the magnificent churches, and gain a sense of the crossing place of the Caucasus. Tbilisi – It is a town which conquers you with a slow fascination and lodges in your heart forever.

Archaeological studies of the region have revealed that the territory of Tbilisi was settled by humans as early as the 4th millennium B.C.E. The earliest actual (recorded) accounts of settlement of the location come from the second half of the 4th century AD, when a fortress was built during King Varaz-Bakur’s reign. Towards the end of the 4th century the fortress fell into the hands of the Persians after which the location fell back into the hands of the Kings of Kartli (Georgia) by the middle of the 5th century A.D. King Vakhtang I Gorgasali (reigned in the middle and latter part of the 5th century), who is largely credited for founding Tbilisi, was actually responsible for reviving and building up the city and not founding it. The present-day location of the area which Gorgasali seems to have built up is spread out around the Metekhi cliff and the latter-day Abanot-Ubani neighbourhood.

About Sighnaghi

Sunday, February 27th, 2011

Sighnaghi

Sighnaghi

About Sighnaghi

Sighnaghi is a little city in Georgia. Sighnaghi is a administrative center of Georgia. In

In Sighnaghi lives 2.1 thousand man. The town has an area of 2.978 kmВІ with 24.3% being residential. Sighnaghi is approximately 113 km southeast of Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. Sighnaghi District is adjacent, on the town’s east and southwest sides. Sighnaghi is situated in the eastern foothills of the Gombori Range, a watershed between the Iori and Alazani valleys, in a productive agricultural and fruit-growing region. At the elevation of about 790 m above sea level, the town overlooks the Alazani Valley and faces the Greater Caucasus mountains.

Sighnaghi has a mild humid climate. There are four seasons, with winters being moderately cold while summers can be hot. The highest average temperature is in July at 24.3В°C while the lowest average temperature is in January at 0.2В°C. Average annual precipitation ranges from 602.1 to 949.7 mm, with the heaviest occurring during the spring months and early summer.

History of Sighnaghi:

The territory of the modern-day town has been settled since the Paleolithic period and was known as Hereti in the Middle Ages, and as Kiziqi after the 15th century. Sighnaghi (literally, “harbor” in Turkish) as a settlement is first recorded in the early 18th century. In 1762, King Heraclius II of Georgia sponsored the construction of the town and erected a fortress to defend the area from marauding attacks by Dagestan tribesmen. As of the 1770 census, Sighnaghi was settled by 100 families, chiefly craftsmen and merchants. When Georgia was annexed by Imperial Russia in 1801, Sighnaghi was officially granted town status and became a centre of Signakh uyezd within Tiflis Governorate in 1802. The town quickly rose in its size and population and became an agricultural centre under the Soviet Union. The severe economic crisis in post-Soviet Georgia heavily affected the town, but a major reconstruction project recently launched by the Government of Georgia and co-funded by several international organizations intends to address an increasing tourist interest and modernize infrastructure.



Republic of Georgia

Sunday, February 27th, 2011
Georgia Map

Georgia Map

Georgia

Georgia is a Republic, which is mainly populated by ethnic Georgians. In X century, Georgia was an ethnic-cultural concept and meant “Qarti” tomme’s and Georgian cultural auspices of all the South Caucasian and some nongeorgian tomme’s cultural unity, and later – their ethnic-cultural-religios-social-economic and political unity, which’s final form – united state, established in XI century. In XII-XIV centuries, Georgia was called the entire Christian and partly Muslim Caucasus. In XIV century, after collapse of country into kingdom-principalities, the term “Georgia” lost it’s meaning. For foreigners it became, etchic-geographical concept ( Gruzia, Vrastan, Gurjistan, etc.).

Georgia Nature

Georgia Nature

Location, nature, climate

Georgia is a country situated in south-east Europe, which borders with Black Sea from the West, Azerbaijan, from the East, Russia, from the North, Turkey and Armenia from the south. Great Caucasus cringe separates Russia from Georgia, the South border goes through the Small Caucasus’s highlands and volcanic slopes. 85 % of country’s territory is mountainous. The height of the highest peaks of Caucasus exceeds 5000 meters.

Diversity of physical-geographical and climatic conditions and multitude of natural waters, also the plants brought from different places of Earth, causes the wealthiness and uniqueness of it’s flora. In Georgia we can found Black Sea’s sandy coasts, everlasting snow covered peaks, humid subtropics and semi-deserts, unique sphagnum swamps and valley’s dressed with dense forests, also almost untouchable areas of wildlife. Due to such variety of nature in Georgia, one can go skiing in the mountains in summer and after that swim the sea.

Georgia has a subtropical climate, summer temperature is approximately 30-35 degrees, in winter from -20 up to +15 degrees.

Population

Population

Population

The country territory’s total area is 69500 KM2. Georgia includes several historic-geographic regions : Kartli, Kakheti, Pshavi, Khevsureti,Mtiuleti, Gudamaqari, Tusheti (Eastern Georgia), Imereti,Guria, Adjara, Samegrelo, Racha, Lechkhumi, Svaneti (Western Georgia), part of historic Samtskhe-Javakheti and Meskhet(South Georgia).Total population approximately is 5 399 000 people, of which 71 % are ethnic Georgians, 8% are Armenians, 5% are Russians, 3% are Ossetians, 6% are Azeri, 1% – Ukrainians, 0,2% – Greeks and 2% – Jews

Metekhi Tbilisi

Metekhi Tbilisi

Historical outlines

Georgia is one of the most ancient countries in the world, with 3 millenium history. The first Georgian states, Diaokhi(in the South-West of Georgia) and Kolkha(on the Black Sea South-East coast) existed yet still in XII-VIII centuries BC. In VI-IV centuries BC, kingdoms of Egrisi and Kartli were established on the territory of Georgia. The kingdom of Kartli particularly strengthened in IV-III centuries BC, during the reign of Parnavaz. At this time, Kartli’s capital was Mtskheta, and the main deity was – Armaz.

Vth century. Vakhtang Gorgasali’s reign period is connected with creation of Tbilisi and building churches on the whole territory of the country.

VII-IX centuries. Arabs dominated in Georgia. During the battle with Arabs, the united feudal Georgian monarchy developed with Bagrat III leadership.

XI-XII centuries. During David Aghmashenebeli and Tamar’s reign, the country’s military success and brilliant achievements in the economy and in culture made Georgia the strongest country. During Tamar’s reign, death penalty was abolished in Georgia. In this period, Rustaveli wrote his masterpiece : “Vepkhistkaosani”

From XIII century, Mongols long reign begins with devastating invasions of Tamerlan. XV century. Georgia disbanded into kingdom-principalities. Turkish- Ottoman powerful kingdom became the Western neighbour of Georgia, which eventually plucked Georgia from Western Europe. In South-East several Turkish kingdoms established, and Russia moored Georgia from the North. XVI-XVIII centuries. Georgian kingdoms principalities devotedly fought for independence. Iran – Turkish endless wars were destroying the country. At the end of XVIII century, Erekle II tried to restore the unity of the country, but he was able to do it only in Kakheti and in Kartli temporary.

By the treatise of Georgievsk in 1783, Eastern Georgia went into Russia’s protection, In 1801, Russia abolished Kartli-Kakheti kingdom and joined it to it’s empire. Soon in the Western Georgia and in whole Caucasus, Russian colonial regime established.

After the Russian Revolution in 1917, Georgia became temporary independent, but soon Bolsheviks conquered it. Only after Soviet Union collapse, Georgia reached complete independence.

After collapse of Soviet Union and it’s putsch, Georgia regained its independence(it was officialy announced on May 26, 1991), and in 1995 Georgia adopted a new constitution and became presidential republic.

Traditions and customs

Georgian traditions and customs are unique. The regale of guest is duty of all members of family, especially for the table head – Tamada.

Some Georgian traditions were gradually forgotten.

 

Religion

During non-christianity in Georgia, people worshiped national deities. From first century A.B, christianity spreads in Georgia. In 337, during king Mirian reign, with the liturgy of St. Nino the Kabadokian, christianity is declared as the state religion. In V century, Georgian Orthodox Church autocephalous was declared.

The most part of Georgians are Orthodox Christians, there are also Catholics – mostly in South Georgia and Islamic confessors – mostly in Adjara. Thus, one can see synagogues and a mosque near Georgian Orthodox churches.

Culture

Georgia is located on the two biggest cultures crossroad – Eastern and Western. That’s why, Georgian culture is a kind of mixture of Eastern and Western cultures and traditions. It’s evidents are ancient archeological monuments found in archeological excavations. Ancient period left palaces, fortresses – and the remains of ancient cities(Uplistsikhe, Armazi, Urbnisi, Vani, etc.). Also excellent examples of metalwork, ceramics production, mosaic art and other branches of art.

The main styles of Georgian churches are basilica and central dome. Ancient basilicas are dated for IV-VI centuries, the style of central dome dominated in VI century and reached the peak of development in XI-XII centuries.